The laser Doppler velocimeter sends a monochromatic laser beam toward the target and collects the reflected radiation. According to the Doppler effect, the change in wavelength of the reflected radiation is a function of the targeted object's relative velocity. Thus, the velocity of the object can be obtained by measuring the change in wavelength of the reflected laser light, which is done by forming an interference fringe pattern (i.e. superimpose the original and reflected signals).
Typical Laser Doppler Velocimeter