Heating and cooling, more specifically HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning), refer to technology of indoor environmental control in the purpose of comfort, specific temperature and humidity ranges required by certain manufacturing processes, or simulating animal and plant's habitats.
HVAC system design is a cross-discipline of mechanical engineering and electric engineering. It involves knowledge of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, electric circuits and feedback controls. In addition to industrial and office buildings, space Heating and Cooling are also essential at homes. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes.