AC motors and carbon brushes
Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor output, but small brushes are desired for low mass to maximize the speed at which the motor can run without the brushes excessively bouncing and sparking comparable to the problem of heater valve float in internal combustion engines. Small brushes are also desirable for lower cost. Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a given mass work at a higher speed, but at the cost of greater friction losses lower efficiency and accelerated brush and commutator wear. Therefore, DC motor brush design entails a trade-off between output power, speed, and efficiency/wear.