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ASTM A678 Grade A is categorized as Carbon Steel. It is composed of (in weight percentage) 0.16% Carbon (C), 0.90-1.50% Manganese (Mn), 0.04%(max) Phosphorus (P), 0.05%(max) Sulfur (S), 0.15-0.50% Silicon (Si), 0.20% Copper (Cu), and the base metal Iron (Fe). Another common designation of ASTM A678 Grade A carbon steel is UNS K01600.
Steel is the common name for a large family of iron alloys. Steels can either be cast directly to shape, or into ingots which are reheated and hot worked into a wrought shape by forging, extrusion, rolling, or other processes. Wrought steels are the most common engineering material used, and come in a variety of forms with different finishes and properties. Carbon steels alloying elements do not exceed these limits: 1% carbon, 0.6% copper, 1.65% manganese, 0.4% phosphorus, 0.6% silicon, and 0.05% sulfur.
The typical elastic modulus of carbon steels at room temperature (25°C) ranges from 190 to 210 GPa. The typical density of carbon steels is about 7.85 g/cm3. The typical tensile strength varies between 276 and 1882 MPa. The wide range of ultimate tensile strength is largely due to different heat treatment conditions.
Other common Carbon steels include AISI 1005, AISI 1006, AISI 1008, AISI 1010, AISI 1011, AISI 1012, AISI 1013, AISI 1015, AISI 1016, AISI 1017, AISI 1018, AISI 1019, AISI 1020, AISI 1021, AISI 1022, AISI 1023, AISI 1025, AISI 1026, AISI 1029, AISI 1030, AISI 1035, AISI 1037, AISI 1038, AISI 1038H, AISI 1039, AISI 1040, AISI 1042, AISI 1043, AISI 1044, AISI 1045, AISI 1045H, AISI 1046, AISI 1049, AISI 1050, AISI 1052, AISI 1053, AISI 1055, AISI 1059, AISI 1060, AISI 1064, AISI 1065, AISI 1069, AISI 1070, AISI 1074, AISI 1075, AISI 1078, AISI 1080, AISI 1084, AISI 1085, AISI 1086, AISI 1090, AISI 1095, AISI 1110, AISI 1117, AISI 1118, AISI 1137, AISI 1139, AISI 1140, AISI 1141, AISI 1144, AISI 1145, AISI 1146, AISI 1151, AISI 1211, AISI 1212, AISI 1213, AISI 1215, AISI 12L14, AISI 1513, AISI 1518, AISI 1522, AISI 1522H, AISI 1524, AISI 1524H, AISI 1525, AISI 1526, AISI 1526H, AISI 1527, AISI 1536, AISI 1541, AISI 1541H, AISI 1547, AISI 1548, AISI 1551, AISI 1552, AISI 1561, AISI 1566, AISI 1572, AISI 15B21H, AISI 15B35H, AISI 15B37H, AISI 15B41H, AISI 15B48H, AISI 15B62H, AISI M1008, AISI M1010, AISI M1012, AISI M1015, AISI M1017, AISI M1020, AISI M1023, AISI M1025, AISI M1031, AISI M1044, ASTM A109 Temper 1, ASTM A109 Temper 2, ASTM A109 Temper 3, ASTM A109 Temper 4, ASTM A109 Temper 5, ASTM A284 Grade A, ASTM A284 Grade B, ASTM A284 Grade C, ASTM A284 Grade D, ASTM A285 Grade A, ASTM A285 Grade B, ASTM A285 Grade C, ASTM A288, ASTM A366, ASTM A414 Grade A, ASTM A414 Grade B, ASTM A414 Grade C, ASTM A414 Grade D, ASTM A414 Grade E, ASTM A414 Grade F, ASTM A414 Grade G, ASTM A442 Grade 55, ASTM A442 Grade 60, ASTM A455 Type I, ASTM A455 Type II, ASTM A515 Grade 55, ASTM A515 Grade 60, ASTM A515 Grade 65, ASTM A515 Grade 70, ASTM A516 Grade 55, ASTM A516 Grade 60, ASTM A516 Grade 65, ASTM A516 Grade 70, ASTM A537, ASTM A569, ASTM A570 Grade 30, ASTM A570 Grade 33, ASTM A570 Grade 36, ASTM A570 Grade 40, ASTM A570 Grade 45, ASTM A570 Grade 50, ASTM A573 Grade 58, ASTM A573 Grade 65, ASTM A573 Grade 70, ASTM A606, ASTM A607 Grade 45, ASTM A607 Grade 50, ASTM A607 Grade 55, ASTM A607 Grade 60, ASTM A607 Grade 65, ASTM A607 Grade 70, ASTM A611 Grade A, ASTM A611 Grade B, ASTM A611 Grade C, ASTM A611 Grade E, ASTM A612, ASTM A619, ASTM A620, ASTM A621, ASTM A622, ASTM A662 Grade A, ASTM A662 Grade B, ASTM A678 Grade B, ASTM A678 Grade C, ASTM A715, and ASTM A724 Grade A.
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