eFunda: Typical Properties of Steels
engineering fundamentals Properties of Steels
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General Properties of Steels
The following table lists the typical properties of steels at room temperature (25°C). The wide ranges of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness are largely due to different heat treatment conditions.

Properties Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Tool Steels
Density (1000 kg/m3) 7.85 7.85 7.75-8.1 7.72-8.0
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 190-210 190-210 190-210 190-210
Poisson's Ratio 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3
Thermal Expansion (10-6/K) 11-16.6 9.0-15 9.0-20.7 9.4-15.1
Melting Point (°C)     1371-1454  
Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K) 24.3-65.2 26-48.6 11.2-36.7 19.9-48.3
Specific Heat (J/kg-K) 450-2081 452-1499 420-500  
Electrical Resistivity (10-9W-m) 130-1250 210-1251 75.7-1020  
Tensile Strength (MPa) 276-1882 758-1882 515-827 640-2000
Yield Strength (MPa) 186-758 366-1793 207-552 380-440
Percent Elongation (%) 10-32 4-31 12-40 5-25
Hardness (Brinell 3000kg) 86-388 149-627 137-595 210-620

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