Drilling is easily the most common machining process. One estimate is that 75% of all metal-cutting material removed comes from drilling operations.
Drilling involves the creation of holes that are right circular cylinders. This is accomplished most typically by using a twist drill, something most readers will have seen before. The figure below illustrates a cross section of a hole being cut by a common twist drill:
The chips must exit through the flutes to the outside of the tool. As can be seen in the figure, the cutting front is embedded within the workpiece, making cooling difficult. The cutting area can be flooded, coolant spray mist can be applied, or coolant can be delivered through the drill bit shaft. For an overview of the chip-formation process, see the Chip Formation Section.