Power Transmission

Gear drives, bearings, motors, clutches, couplings, machine controls, sensors and components.

Quality Magazine

Techniques to improve quality on the shop floor and in manufacturing planning.

Hydraulics & Pneumatics

For design and manufacturing engineers involved in buying or specifying fluid power components and systems.


International news and technology for marine/offshore operations around the world.

more free magazines
Fiber Reinforced Composite Lamina

Given the material properties of the fibers and the matrix and the volume fraction of fibers, this calculator will estimate the equivalent material properties of the composite lamina in the principal directions.

This calculator assumes

  1. The fibers are homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic, continuous, regularly spaced, and perfectly aligned.
  2. The matrix is homogeneous, isotropic, and linear elastic.
  3. The lamina is macroscopically homogeneous, macroscopically orthotropic, linear elastic, initially stress-free, void-free, and perfectly bonded.

The derivation of the formulas can be found in the determination of material constants of a lamina section.


Volume Fraction
Volume Fraction of FIBERS, Vf:
Unit of Elastic Modulus:
Fiber Material Preperties

Fiber Material:
Young's Modulus of Fibers, Ef:
Shear Modulus of Fibers, Gf:
Poisson's Ratio of Fibers, f:
Matrix Material Preperties

Matrix Material:
Young's Modulus of Matrix Em:
Shear Modulus of Matrix Gm:
Poisson's Ratio of Matrix m:


Volume fraction of the matrix Vm:

Young's modulus along the fiber direction E1:

Young's modulus transverse to the fiber direction E2:

Shear modulus G12:

Major Poisson's ratio 12: