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To view a subset of reactions from the Electrochemical Series (a.k.a. Electromotive Series) make a selection from one of the options below:

View corrosion reactions typically encountered in engineering applications (i.e. iron, copper, zinc, water). This subset is sometimes known as the Galvanic Series.
View all reactions containing
and also containing
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View All View all reactions in the database sorted in order of decreasing electrode potential.
About the Electrochemical Series
The Electrochemical Series is a list of chemical reactions and their associated voltages Eoref (with respect to a common reference) that play a role in corrosion.

For corrosion to occur, at least a pair of reactions must take place: one reaction on the cathode, and the other reaction on the anode. Which reactions are possible is determined by the elements at hand, both in the makeup of the metal under consideration and dissolved in the electrolytic solution bathing the metal.

It is not possible to measure the electrode potential Eoref for a single reaction in isolation. Rather, two reactions must occur simultaneously in order the compare the potential difference between them.

All reactions are paired with the reaction for dissolved hydrogen ions. Both the test reaction and the reference reaction are maintained at 1 molar concentrations (i.e. 1 gram-mole per liter), in an environment of 25 °C and 1 atm pressure.

For concentrations and temperatures other than 1 molar and 25 °C, the electrode potential Eo can be recalculated using the Nernst equation,

where k is Boltzmans constant (8.61 × 10-5 eV/K), n is the number of electrons exchanged in the reaction, T is the temperature (in Kelvin), C is the molar concentration.