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All Constitutive Forms
The four possible forms for piezoelectric constitutive equations are shown below. The names for each of the forms is arbitrary; they were taken from the two dependent variables on the left-hand-side of each equation. Note that the Voltage and Electric Field variables are related via a gradient.
Strain-Charge Form: Stress-Charge Form:
Constitutive Law: Strain-Charge Form Constitutive Law: Strain-Charge Form
Strain-Voltage Form: Stress-Voltage Form:
Constitutive Law: Strain-Voltage Form Constitutive Law: Stress-Voltage Form
Transformations
Matrix transformations for converting piezoelectric constitutive data from one form into another form are shown below. Only 4 out of the 6 possible combinations are shown.
Strain-Charge to Stress-Charge: Strain-Charge to Strain-Voltage:
Transform: d to e Transform: d to g
Stress-Charge to Stress-Voltage: Strain-Voltage to Stress-Voltage:
Transform: e to q Transform: g to q
See the Symbol Definition page for the units and dimensions of the constitutive matrices shown here.

See Subscript Definitions for an explanation to the subscripts on the constitutive matrices.

3D Scanners

A white paper to assist in the evaluation of 3D scanning hardware solutions.

Metal 3D Printing Design Guide

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) 3D printing for parts with reduced cost and little waste.

STEM Career Outlook

Wages, employment opportunities, and growth projections for STEM jobs.

Salary Expectation

8 things to know about the interview question "What's your salary expectation"?