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Chip Formation: Introduction
Because of the importance of machining for any industrial economy, Machining Theory has been extensively studied.
 
The chip formation process is the same for most machining processes, and it has been researched in order to determine closed-form solutions for speeds, feeds, and other parameters which have in the past been determined by the "feel" of the machinist.
 
With CNC machine tools producing parts at ever-faster rates, it has become important to provide automatic algorithms for determining speeds and feeds. The information presented in this section are some of the more important aspects of chip formation. Reasons for machining being difficult to analyze and characterize can be summarized as follows:
  • The strain rate is extremely high compared to that of other fabrication processes.
  • The process varies considerably depending on the part material, temperature, cutting fluids, etc.
  • The process varies considerably depending on the tool material, temperature, chatter and vibration, etc.
  • The process is only constrained by the tool cutter. Unlike other processes such as molding and cold forming which are contained, a lot of variation can occur even with the same configuration.
For all types of machining, including grinding, honing, lapping, planing, turning, or milling, the phenomenon of chip formation is similar at the point where the tool meets the work.
 
Below are illustrated categories of chip types.

 

 

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