The operations associated with stamping are blanking, piercing, forming, and drawing.
These operations are done with dedicated tooling also known as hard tooling. This type of tooling is used to make high volume parts of one configuration of part design. (By contrast, soft tooling is used in processes such as CNC turret presses, laser profilers and press brakes). All these operations can be done either at a single die station or multiple die stations performing a progression of operations, known as a progressive die.
The equipments of stamping can be categorized to two types: mechanical presses and hydraulic presses.
Mechanical Presses: Mechanical presses has a mechanical flywheel to store the energy, transfer it to the punch and to the workpiece. They range in size from 20 tons up to 6000 tons. Strokes range from 5 to 500 mm (0.2 to 20 in) and speeds from 20 to 1500 strokes per minute. Mechanical presses are well suited for high-speed blanking, shallow drawing and for making precision parts.
Hydraulic Presses: Hydraulic Presses use hydraulics to deliver a controlled force. Tonnage can vary from 20 tons to a 10,000 tons. Strokes can vary from 10 mm to 800 mm (0.4 to 32 in). Hydraulic presses can deliver the full power at any point in the stroke; variable tonnage with overload protection; and adjustable stroke and speed. Hydraulic presses are suitable for deep-drawing, compound die action as in blanking with forming or coining, low speed high tonnage blanking, and force type of forming rather than displacement type of forming.
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