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Common Hardfacing Processes

Fusion hardfacing is a process by which weld materials, with superior properties than the substrate, are applied to the substrate. Often, two layers total 3 - 6 mm (1/4 - 1/2 in) thick are applied to reduce the surface hardness dilution of the relatively low-cost steel substrates in the expansive cobalt-base alloys. Hardfacing processes are very useful for improving wear and corrosion resistance to selected areas of machinery, such as cutting edges of earth-moving machinery. Common hardfacing techniques include arc, torch, and other processes.

Category Process
Arc welding Flux core arc welding (FCAW)
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Plasma arc welding (PAW)
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
Torch welding Oxy/fuel gas welding (OFW)
Other welding Electron beam welding (EBW)
Electroslag welding (ESW)
Furnace braze (FB)
Laser beam welding (LBW)
Common Materials Used in Hardfacings

Hardfacings are good for substrate materials that are suitable for welding, such as low-carbon steel. The most common hardfacing materials are nickel alloys and iron/chromium alloys used in wear resistance and high stress abrasion. Common materials for hardfacing are listed as follows:

Metal Alloy Purpose
Cobalt-base alloys wear and corrosion resistance
Copper-base alloys rebuilding worn machinery parts
Iron chromium alloys high stress abrasion
Manganese steel wear application
Nickel-base alloys metal-to-metal wear resistance
Tool steel tooling, wear application
Tungsten carbide high stress abrasion