Injection Molding Design Guide

Guide for high quality and cost-effective plastic injection molding.

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Wages, employment opportunities, and growth projections for STEM jobs.

Mechanical Engineers Outlook

Guide for those interested in becoming a mechanical engineer. Includes qualifications, pay, and job duties.

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Common High Energy Processes

High-energy processes are relatively new surface treatment methods. They can alter the properties of surfaces without changing the dimension of the surfaces. Common high-energy processes, including electron beam treatment, ion implantation, and laser beam treatment, are briefly discussed as follows:

Electron Beam Treatment: Electron beam treatment alters the surface properties by rapid heating — using electron beam and rapid cooling — in the order of 106 ºC/sec (106 ºF/sec) in a very shallow region, 100 µm (.004 in), near the surface. This technique can also be used in hardfacing to produce "surface alloys".

Ion Implantation: Ion implantation uses electron beam or plasma to impinge gas atoms to ions with sufficient energy, and embed these ions into atomic lattice of the substrate, accelerated by magnetic coils in a vacuum chamber. The mismatch between ion implant and the surface of a metal creates atomic defects that hardens the surface.

Laser Beam Treatment: Similar to electron beam treatment, laser beam treatment alters the surface properties by rapid heating and rapid in a very shallow region near the surface. It can also be used in hardfacing to produce "surface alloys".

The results of high-energy processes are not well known or very well controlled. But the preliminary results look promising. Further development is needed in high-energy processes, especially in implant dosages and treatment methods.

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Injection Molding Design Guide

Guide for high quality and cost-effective plastic injection molding.

STEM Career Outlook

Wages, employment opportunities, and growth projections for STEM jobs.

Mechanical Engineers Outlook

Guide for those interested in becoming a mechanical engineer. Includes qualifications, pay, and job duties.

Selecting the Right 3D Printer

Discover how to choose the right 3D printer for your needs and the key performance attributes to consider.